In autoimmune kidney disease, the immune system starts to attack the kidneys instead of protecting the body from invading microbes and infection. Some of the more common symptoms of glomerulonephritis are: blood in the urine, foamy urine (due to excess protein in the urine) and swelling of the face, eyes, ankles, feet, legs or abdomen.
The CPI works on a range of Immune Deficiency, Autoimmune and Autoinflammatory diseases.
Some key examples of these include:
Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequently diagnosed primary immunodeficiency disease, where a part of the immune system is absent or dysfunctional. The main signs and symptoms are recurrent infections involving the ears, nasal sinuses and lungs, which can appear anytime from childhood through to adulthood. Repeated and severe respiratory infections can lead to bronchiectasis, which is permanent scarring of the airways of the lung. CVID can also be complicated by the detection of inflammatory lesions (granulomas) in the lung that are identical to those observed in sarcoidosis.
Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune condition in which the immune system is activated to destroy the cells in the pancreas which produce insulin. We do not know what causes this auto-immune reaction. Type 1 diabetes is not linked to modifiable lifestyle factors. There is no cure and it cannot be prevented.
HLH is a rare disorder of the immune system where there is an over-production and activation of normal immune cells.
Autosomal dominant hyper IgE Syndrome (AD-HIES) is also known as Autosomal Dominant Hyperimmunoglobulin E Syndrome is a very rare, genetic disease. It is characterised by abnormally high levels of a group of antibodies known as immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the blood. Normally, IgE helps the body to fight infections, especially parasitic worms. It also plays a key role in allergies (eg hayfever, atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma). People with this condition experience frequent bouts of pneumonia that can often result in the formation of air-filled cysts in the lungs.
SCID is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency disorder that appears during infancy. The immune system is composed of white blood cells of which half are T cells. These T cells play a vital role in fighting infection. They also assist another type of white blood cell known as B cells to produce antibodies (or immunoglobulins). These T and B cells do not function properly in individuals with SCID. In many cases, the affected individual is born with no T cells at all. Without T cells the B cells cannot make antibodies.
Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune disease that leads to inflammation that can affect almost any organ in the body, but mostly the lungs, lymph nodes and/or skin are affected. The characteristic feature of sarcoidosis is the formation of granulomas, which are microscopic clumps of cells, in affected tissues. These granulomas can alter the normal structure and impair the function of the affected organ(s).
The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown. It is most likely due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors.
Sjögren’s (“show-grins”) syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the moisture producing glands in the body. The most common symptoms are dry eyes and mouth. In more serious cases it can cause the dysfunction of other organs, including the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, lungs, liver, pancreas and/or the central nervous system. There is also an increased risk of developing lymphoma, a cancer of immune cells, lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell.
There are two types of Sjögren’s syndrome.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), more commonly known as lupus, is a chronic autoimmune disease with a broad range of clinical manifestations. It is characterised by acute and chronic inflammation in various tissues of the body including the skin, joints, kidneys, brain and other organs. The symptoms can range from relatively mild to life-threatening. In some, exposure to a trigger including certain medications can cause drug-induced lupus. These symptoms usually disappear once the person has ceased taking the medication.